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The lab firm was accused of billing government payors for unnecessary testing as well as paying illegal compensation to phlebotomy vendors.
The lawsuit also alleges Anthem failed to delete inaccurate diagnosis codes, leading to inflated risk-adjustment payments from Medicare.
The agency said it believes its recent focus on the issue has tamped down on genetic testing fraud, though it expects new questionable arrangements will emerge.
The US DOJ had alleged Boston Heart Diagnostics conspired to pay doctors kickbacks that were disguised as investment returns.
The owner is accused of falsely billing Medicare for cancer genomic testing and pharmacogenetic testing that regularly exceeded $12,000 per beneficiary.
Three executives from Northwest Physicians have been indicted while an executive with Molecular Testing Labs pleaded guilty for his part in the alleged scheme.
Fresenius was alleged to have unnecessarily tested some dialysis patients for hepatitis B surface antigen and billing Medicare for the tests.
According to the DOJ, the company also accepted a 25-year ban on participating in any federal healthcare program.
The defendants, which include people associated with genetic testing labs, allegedly billed Medicare over $2.1 billion for unnecessary tests.
The company decided to settle the complaint in order to avoid "lengthy and distracting litigation," but denies any wrongdoing.